STORY OF THE SINO-JAPANESE WAR 347 think what all this confusion of cultures means and how to preserve our old culture. Meanwhile, it is not our old culture, but machine-guns and hand-grenades that will save the nation. The Chinese nation will not touch their old culture, until the Japanese cease talking about this "common" Asiatic culture and leave it alone where it belongs. It behoves the wise not to speak too often of a national culture, lest the jingoes hear of it and 'make of it a catchword and a phrase to destroy it. One never hears of a specific English or French culture, but when Hitler speaks of "German Kultur" or Itagaki speaks of "Asiatic culture," let the world look out! When a German hears of German Kultur, he immediately reaches out for a gun and when a Japanese speaks of "Asiatic culture," women tremble and scream. IV. BREWING STORMS I saw all this three years ago, back in 1935. I saw the inevitability of the coming armed conflict, and saw the regeneration and redemption of China through war as equally inevitable and axiomatic. For it must be clearly stated and understood that the foundations of the present strong resistance were firmly laid in the years after Japan had swallowed up Manchuria in 1932, and that this resistance is not an overnight growth after the war, merely broaght about by the unimaginable Japanese atrocities. It should be understood that the Japanese undeclared war against China was begun on September i8th, 1931, and has been going on without interruption ever since. "Modern" as the Chinese people comparatively are, their determination to fight Japan was not crystallized and fortified and deepened until they were stung into a frenzy and saw that even after the sacrifice of Manchuria, Japanese appetite was not satisfied but growing, and that the partition of North China was inexorably in the scheme of the Japanese Army. The years of helpless rage between 1932 and the outbreak of the present war were the years in which Japan herself aided the "spriitual mobilization" of the Chinese people and fanned Chinese nationalism and anti-Japanese hatred into a glowing flame.